Scheduled Monument – Monument Number 317521
Grade I Listed Building
Iron Age promontory fort, Medieval castle, Royal palace, had four baileys – the upper, middle, outer and northern baileys. Sand rampart measured 131.2 ft east-west was 31.8 ft wide and standing 13.1ft high.
The Gatehouse has been extensively restored.
868 Site occupied by the Danes.
899-924 During: Edward the Elder fortified the town.
924 Possibly dating from.
1068 Castle built on the site.
1150’s Henry II spent over £1,000 on enhancing the castle.
1153 The castle survived a fire, started by the garrison on King Stephen, which destroyed the town.
1170-1175 Henry II spent £900 on the castle.
1184-1187 Curtain wall added and the defences strengthened.
1191 Seized by Prince John, who later surrendered it to Archbishop Walter.
1194 Taken by supporters of Prince John, and seiged by Richard I when he returned from the 3rd Crusade.
1199-1216 During: Master Nicholas de Ardeli was in charge of the siege engines.
1199-1216 Early part of reign: Master Nicholas de Ardeli was in charge of the siege engines.
1209 Philip Moore was appointed Castallian of the castle.
1216-1272 Extensively improved by Henry III and used as a Royal Palace. He had elaborate paintings in the Mews and dovecote
1250 c: Round Tower built through part of the rampart.
1251 Henry II had the Dias covered in white French plaster.
1266-1267 Held by Reginald de Grey with 20 mounted crossbowmen, 10 foot, 10 foot and bowmen and 20 archers.
1330 Edward III secretly gained access to the castle and arrested Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, who had been acting as Regents whilst Edward was still a minor
1346 David II, King of Scotland, held the castle.
14th C Gatehouse.
1461-1483 During: Edward IV made alterations and added a tower.
1484 Richard III established his military headquarters on the site and received Scottish Ambassadors.
1485 Richard III stayed at the castle before the Battle of Bosworth. It had deteriorated.
15th C Late: Hexagonal tower added to the north east corner.
1540-1546 Itinerary of John Leland: Derelict.
1560-1570 Extensively restored.
16th C Ruined by artillary fire.
1603-1625 During: Fell into disrepair.
1607 Surveyed. The Great Hall had been demolished.
1617 Plans of the castle drawn by John Smythson in the History of the Kings Works.
1622 James I sold it to the Earl of Rutland.
1634-1635 In ruins.
1642 Civil War, 22nd August: Charles I raised his Standard on the land behind the outer wall to the North. The area is now known as Standard Hill. The site was visited by Charles I and he found it to be ‘decaying’.
1643 Civil War, May: 6,000 0f Cromwell’s men were at the castle.
1647 Civil War, March: The garrison were kept on but the works were slighted
1649 Civil War: Sir Marmaduke Langdale escaped from the castle. Mostly demolished under orders of Parliament.
1651 The main buildings were demolished by order of the Council of State, but the Gatehouse was left standing.
1651 End: Purchased by the Duke of Newcastle in a state of ruin.
1654 August: In ruins.
1663 Bought by William Cavendish from the Duke of Buckingham.
1674 The site was cleared except for the main gatehouse and the base of Edward IV’s Tower.
1674-1679 A mansion was built on the site by Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle.
1830’s A road was built through the outer bailey.
1831 Reform Bill Riots: Mansion built on the site was burnt down.
1875-1878 The mansion was restored by Thomas Chambers Hine, and converted into a museum.
1878 The mansion opened to the public as Nottingham Castle Museum, by the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII).
1903-1904 Richard’s Tower excavated
1975 Field Investigation.
1976-1981 Excavated by Trent Valley Archaeological Research Committee.
1994 Excavated by York Archaeological Trust.
1961-997 Standard Hill evaluated by Trent and Peak Archaeological Trust.
1996 A landslip caused damage to the Restoration Terrace.
20th C Early: Gatehouse restored.
2000 Excavated by Trent and Peak Archaeological Trust.
2001 Watching Brief at Standard Hill by University of Leicester Archaeological Services.
2001 Watching Brief of Outer Bailey gatehouse by Trent and Peak Archaeological Trust.
2001 Watching Brief of Western Terrace Trent and Peak Archaeological Trust.
2002 Watching Brief by Trent and Peak Archaeological Trust.
2005 The Restoration Terrace was reinstated with a stone façade.