Hereford Castle: Castle Green: Hogg’s Mount

  • Hereford, Herefordshire.
  • Scheduled Monument


Medieval motte and bailey castle. Mound levelled.


850                              Defences first built.

899-924                       Garrisoned under Edward the Elder. Fort on site.

900                              Area of defence was enlarged.

1046-1052                   Built in timber by Ralph, Earl of Hereford, son of the Count of Vexin, Earl of Hereford.  Built at the south east corner of the town.

1052                            1055    Suffered serious damage when the Welsh over ran the castle and try to destroy it.

1055                            The town was sacked by the Welsh. Gruffydd ap Llewellyn, King of Gwynedd and Powis, and his army, plus Aelfgar the deposed, attacked the castle.

1066                            William Fitz Osbern, Earl of Hereford, rebuilt the castle.

1067                            Occupied. Edric the Wild taunted the castle garrison.

1071                            Roger Fitz Osbern inherited the castle when his father, William, died. He had to forfeit the castle following an unsuccessful attempt to dispose King William.

1100                            Built against the outer walls of the town.

1138                            Garrisoned by Geoffrey Talbot for Matilda. Held off an attack by King Stephen for a month.  Then he took it.

1139                            Matilda took the castle when it was besieged by Gilbert Talbot and Miles of Gloucester.

1140                            Attacked by supporters of Empress Matilda. Cemetery by the cathedral was the site of siege works. Arrows and stones were fired from the Cathedral tower. Milo of Gloucester attacked the garrison by using more siege engines.

1154                            Roger of Gloucester was granted the motte by Henry II, but it was soon taken back following a rebellion.

1181                            Limekiln was built to help rebuild part of the decaying castle wall.

1187                            Stone walls added?

1190                            Castle gates were repaired.

1199-1216                   Between: King John visited the castle regularly

1216                            Walter de Lacy, Sheriff of Hereford, was granted the castle by King John.

1216-1272                   Henry III visited the castle regularly.

1217                            Strengthened against threats from the Welsh.

1239                            A new tower was built to replace the old one.

1245                            Improvements were made to the Royal apartments at a cost of £176 7s 0d. This included the Queen’s chamber being lengthened, a privy chamber, wardrobe and fireplace added. The Kings chamber was whitewashed.

1250                            Over £100 was spent on the castle.

1254                            The castle was surveyed. The Great Tower roof needed repairing as well as the steps to the motte. The gates leading to the bailey also needed repairing. The River Wye was undermining the wall on the south side of the bailey and £60 was spent on the wall by adding a quay.

1256                            New kitchen built.

1260’s                         Headquarters of the Baronial Party during the Baron’s Wars. Prince Edward was captured at Lewes and brought to the castle, but he managed to escape to Wigmore Castle. A new chamber for the King’s clerk was added.

1264                            Held Henry III as a prisoner, but his son, Edward escaped and was able to raise a force.

1281                            The sheriff burnt the military stores and the Kings hoses.

1291-1300                   Surveys showed the roof of the Great Hall needed repair, 65ft of the curtain wall had fallen and the almonry had been demolished.

13 C                            Stonework recorded including a Great Tower on the motte. The walls and bridges were in need of repair. The bastions were added.

1307                            Repairs undertaken.

1326                            Queen Isabella refused to stay in the castle due to its state. She stayed at the Bishop’s Palace instead.

14 C                            End of: in bad state of repair.

1461                            Following the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross, Owen Tudor was captured and bought to the castle.

1486                            Henry VII visited Hereford.

15 C                            The chapel of St. Martins, within the bailey, was still standing.

1536                            Several people were imprisoned in the castle for sympathizing with the Pilgrimage of Grace, a movement formed against Henry VIII split with Rome.

1540-1546                   Itinerary of John Leland: Derelict, abandoned. High, strong towers including ten semi-circular towers surrounding the Great Tower.

1603                            Partially pulled down.

1634                            In ruins.

1642                            Taken by the Earl of Stamford, for Parliament. Lord Scudamore, a Royalist, seized St. Owens Gate, the county magazine.

1642                            24th September: The Earl of Essex and 900 horsemen marched on the city. The Mayor surrendered. Tow days later the Parliamentary infantry arrived as its garrison.

1642                            14th December: Parliamentary garrison withdrew and Hereford reverted back to Royalist control.

1643                            In need of some repair.

1643                            25th April: William Waller and his forces took Hereford and captured Lord Scudamore and Fitzwilliam Coningsby.

1643                            20th May: Waller withdrew and Hereford was again in Royalist control. They began to repair the city’s defences.

1645                            Garrison was installed following the Battle of Naseby. Sieged by the Scots. Lawrence Crawford, one of Fairfax’s officers, was killed whilst the castle was under siege.

1645                            18th June: King Charles arrived at Hereford to raise more troops but left on the 30th when he was unable to do so.

1645                            31st July: Scottish army in the service of Parliament laud siege to the city. St. Owens and St. Martin’s churches were destroyed by shell fire.

1645                            September: The Scottish army withdrew when the heard the Kings army was on the way.

1645                            4th September: King Charles arrived at the castle.

1645                            December: Taken by Parliament through trickery. Colonal Birch disguised some of his soldiers as workmen. They killed the guards and Birch moved in through Bye Gate. He was made Governor of the city.

1645                            After: The castle was given to the Justices of the Peace and they started to demolish it.

1646                            30th October: King Charles took possession of the castle.

1647                            March: A garrison of 160 was kept at the castle. Some demolition work was carried out.

1650’s                         Destroyed. Stone was taken to build a dining hall for the Vicars Choral and other city buildings.

1660                            c: The castle was sold for £600 to the public.

1677                            Dating from: Plan of the castle survives.

1752                            The site was leased to the Society of Tempers.

18 C                            The area was landscaped.

1831                            The Society of Tempers was dissolved.

1833                            Leased to the County Council.

1960                            Excavated.

1973                            Excavated.

20 C                            Bailey still outlines by high banks. Recreation area. A large circular enclosure dating to Neolithic times was found beneath the site.

2001                            Mesolithic flint tools found in the centre of the city.



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